Saturday, September 15, 2012

Recycled Carbon into Fuel Solution Sought as New Science Projects Receive Funding

Pipeline Flows and Infrastructure Construction Investigations also Initiated
Shipping News Feature

UK – Earlier this week it was announced that grants totalling £13.6 million have been awarded to three ground-breaking engineering research projects that promise to help solve major problems facing the UK. The flagship research, funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), embraces three distinct areas. Re-using carbon, the fundamental design of major infrastructure constructs, and the way the complex behaviour of fluid flows is predicted. These projects have implications in the transportation of oil and gas in pipelines and far beyond. EPSRC Chief Executive David Delpy said:

“This research is significant and will bring about ‘green’ advances in industrial practice at a time when the UK needs to up its game and build for growth. Research into re-using carbon can help us cut our carbon emissions, new design techniques will help us build safer structures and new industrial models will change the way the UK works. These are exciting projects and demonstrate the role fundamental science and engineering can play in the future of our economy.”

The grants have been awarded to three leading researchers and their teams. The research for Carbon re-use is based in Sheffield and is presided over by Professor Ray Allen, from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. The team has a £4.5 million grant to look into new ways to capture CO2 efficiently and to study how it can be converted into a fuel. The team will also work to ensure its research outcomes are sustainable and economically viable. Professor Allen said:

“This is a difficult and highly interdisciplinary project but it is potentially extremely important. We are optimistic we will be able to find new, safe ways of re-using carbon to provide valuable energy.”

EPSRC has awarded £4.2 million to the research team led by Professor David Wagg, Professor of Structural Dynamics at the University of Bristol’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, and is supported by a research team from the Universities of Bristol, Cambridge, Sheffield, Southampton and Swansea. The team want to create new methods for designing complex structures like bridges and aeroplanes which often suffer from unwanted vibrations for instance, sometimes when an aeroplane taxies along a runway it is possible for the wheels to vibrate violently from side to side. This effect, called shimmy, is exactly the same as the juddering of a shopping trolley wheel. However, because this effect is nonlinear, current linear design methods cannot help us understand and avoid it. Professor Wagg said:

“The complexity of modern designs has outstripped our ability to fully understand their dynamic behaviour. All our understanding is based on linear dynamics and we find it really hard to anticipate nonlinear effects. We plan to advance our knowledge in this area to develop a new and radical era of design for structures such as wind turbines, bridges, building, spacecraft and aeroplanes.”

Professor Omar Matar, from Imperial College London, and his team have been given £4.9 million to change industrial practice making it more reliable and efficient. Working with industry leaders the team will rely on sound fundamentals to design a new generation of modelling and simulation tools for fluid flow systems such as oil and gas transportation in pipelines. Omar Matar said:

“We believe our work will result in a paradigm shift in the way we think about the prediction of complex multiphase flows – which are key to the design of virtually every processing and manufacturing technology. Currently, there is an over-reliance on existing models which are often used beyond their range of validity. We want to change that culture and ensure researchers in academia and industry rely more on fundamentals. This approach will ultimately lead to more innovative and inventive products for us all, more reliable equipment design, with an associated reduction in emissions and our carbon footprint. This will be of tremendous benefit to the UK economy.”